How to Make Coconut Oil From Fermentation Method?
Coconut oil is produced through the compression process copra, coconut milk and bio-process heating coconut milk has been known for a long time. Bio process coconut milk has been started from the use of pure culture through the use of enzymes, However until now its use is still not popular in the community, one obstacle is handle microorganisms that are considered complex or enzyme price is high. Tempeh inoculum contained market, potentially as a decomposer coconut milk that is safe and easy to use in the production of palm oil in fermentation without using chemicals and high heat. Bio process coconut milk using tempeh inoculum can be done without having to go through pre-culture (starter), is an important step to facilitate application in rural areas in order to manufacture a fermented coconut oil, particularly oil-producing coastal region. Grated coconut or coconut cream that has been discarded in inoculated by tempeh inoculum, mixed well and incubate for 6 hours at room temperature. At the end of the fermentation process will be formed and separate oil from water and protein. Acquisition of oil through the fermentation process can reach 100-200 ml per old coconut fruit of a kind commonly found in the market. Products are scented coconut oil and its characteristics are suitable for cosmetic supplies. When added fragrance oil for testing as a moisturizer, blend perfectly dissolved and the smell last more than a month.
Coconut fruit is generally only used for vegetable oil and cooking oil. In some places has also developed various products processed from coconuts and the next, like desiccated coconut, nata de coco, coco fiber, and activated charcoal. However, pure coconut oil which has a high added value it has not been developed in Indonesia. Virgin coconut oil is mainly used for health and cosmetics. And cooking oil is usually made with a simple way, and traditional, while basically coconut oil can be made through fermentation.
Virgin coconut oil is coconut oil made from fresh coconut raw materials, processed with controlled heating or without heating at all, no chemicals and RDB. Palm oil refining as above lead content of the essential compounds needed by the body remains intact. Pure coconut oil with the main content of lauric acid has antibiotic properties, anti-bacteria and fungi. Virgin coconut oil, or better known as virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a modification process of making coconut oil so that the resulting product with water content and free fatty acid levels are low, clear colored, aromatic, and has a long shelf life that is more than 12 months.
Preparation of pure coconut oil has many advantages which does not require expensive because the raw materials are easily obtained with a cheap price, simple processing and is not too complicated, and minimal use of energy because it does not use fuel so that the chemical and nutritional content is maintained primarily fatty acids in oil. When compared with the normal palm oil or cooking oil is often called (coconut oil copra) of pure coconut oil has better quality. Copra coconut oil turns golden brown, smells fragrant and rancid easily so that the shelf does not last long (less than two months). From an economic point of pure coconut oil has a higher selling price than coconut oil copra thus making VCO studies need to be developed.
Palm has become a source of food since time immemorial. The fruit is an integral part of Indonesian society. In traditional life, coconut meat is a source of nutrients that are filled with coconut milk taste delicious.
There are several ways to extract oil from the fruit flesh, which is in physics, chemistry, and fermentation. The traditional process by way of physics (heating) to produce oil with low quality because of high water content and cause bad quality (high acid number and peroxide number). Extraction of oil by chemical means to cause a decrease in the quality of some important nutrients, such as lauric acid and tocopherol and peroxide resulted in increased numbers.
Fermentation Coconut Oil
Fermentation is the process of energy production in cells under anaerobic conditions (without oxygen). In general, fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration, however, there is a clearer definition which defines fermentation as respiration in an anaerobic environment with no electron acceptor external sugar is a common ingredient in fermentation. Some examples of the results of fermentation are ethanol, lactic acid, and hydrogen. However, some compounds can be produced by fermentation, such as butyric acid and acetone. Yeast is known as an ingredient commonly used in fermentation to produce ethanol in beer, wine and other alcoholic beverages. Anaerobic respiration in mammalian muscle during hard work (which has no external electron acceptor), can be categorized as a form of fermented coconut oil has many advantages including durable, easy to rancidity and almost no cholesterol content.
Fermented coconut oil contain more than 95% triglycerides and some types of saturated fatty acids and not saturated. Saturated fatty acids include lauric acid, myristic, palmitic, and stearic, whereas saturated fatty acids include oleic acid, linoleic, and linolenic. The dominant saturated fatty acid is lauric acid. Excess fermentation extraction process than the other way is its simplicity so that it can be produced in a practical, fuel efficient, less galendo residue, low-level acid number, low-level peroxide number, with a longer shelf life, more fragrant aroma, and free cholesterol-induced compounds.
In biology, fermented coconut oil more secure and profitable than traditional oil produced from copra, because it can prevent the occurrence of infection by insects and afla-toxin-producing fungi of potential toxicity. Petroleum products "kelentik" which is traditionally considered to be processed is not economical and low quality, so the low competitiveness in local and regional market.
Oil extraction process involves fermentation enzymes coconut milk emulsion breaker. Microbial cultures that are used are expected to have proteolytic activity, amilolitik, and lipolytic role in the hydrolysis of proteins, carbohydrates, and fat. The purpose of this study was to test the enzymatic ability of microbial cultures for the extraction of palm oil in fermentation.
Various ways have been made to obtain oil from coconut. Some of them are:
1. Wet Method
This method is relatively simple. Shredded pieces of meat, then add water and coconut milk is squeezed so that issue. Once it is done on coconut oil separation. Separation can be done by heating, or centrifugation.
2. Press Method
How to be pressed against the dried coconut meat (copra). This process requires a substantial investment to purchase equipment and machinery.
3. Solvent Extraction
This method uses a liquid solvent (hereinafter referred to as solvent only) which can dissolve the oil. Solvents used low boiling point, very volatile, do not interact chemically with the oil and the residue is not toxic. Although this method is quite simple, but rarely used because the cost is relatively expensive.
How To Fermentation With Wet Method
In the way of fermentation, settling for separating skim milk from cream. Furthermore, fermented cream to facilitate clotting of the non-oil (primarily proteins) of oil during heating. Microbes that develop during fermentation, especially acid-producing microbes. The acid produced causes the milk proteins have clotting and easily separated during heating.
Grated coconut (8 kg), coconut water, warm water, and 5 g yeast bread
Scales, gallon, stove, pot, pressing coconut milk, filter, hose, and Erlenmeyer
3. How it works
a. Prepare tools and materials
b. Squeeze the grated coconut to make coconut milk which had previously been in hot water added.
c. The liquid let stand for 45 minutes to separate the scheme to skim and cream after cream separately, then skim in a manner sucked out using a hose.
d. After the cream in getting, then add pure coconut milk into coconut cream and finally add the yeast into it and immediately whisk for yeast spread throughout the coconut milk.
e. Closing the gallon and the air to the tube Erlenmeyer to avoid explosion.
f. Perform fermentation for 24 hours and keep watching.
g. After fermentation, we then split between oil, protein and coconut water.
h. Cooking oils and protein to lose their water content.
i. Last, filter oil residue result of fermentation of oil and we can take the coconut oil.
Advantages Over Traditional Processes
In the theory said that free, oil extraction in the fermentation process enzymes involve coconut milk emulsion breaker. The enzyme activity is influenced by substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, pH, temperature and duration of the enzymatic reaction. So that all processes in the manufacture of coconut oil should be on notice to avoid mistakes.
First, the purpose of adding warm water to the grated coconut is for making a protein found on the palm can be done quickly, so that when the pressing of the coconut milk that produced very good. Then, objectives of skim and cream separation is to facilitate the process of fermentation, when skim not separated, the fermentation process will take a long time because the material in fermentation is too much.
Second, the purpose of adding the coconut milk is to add yeast in coconut milk-consuming, because the coconut water contains sugar, and become involved in the fermentation process, so that at the end of the process in we will get oil residues that bitter. During the process anaerobic fermentation occurs without air/oxygen from the outside, but at the time of fermentation in the hose into the water stream in order for the process of fermentation occurs when a big bubble, it is not an explosion.
Furthermore, as for the advantages of this fermentation process is durable, easy to rancidity and almost no cholesterol content. Coconut oil from fermentation method contain more than 95% triglycerides (triglyceride) and some types of saturated fatty acids and not saturated. In biology, Coconut oil from fermentation method more secure and profitable than traditional oil produced from copra, because it can prevent the occurrence of infection by insects and afla-toxin-producing fungi of potential toxicity.
In addition, the excess is to save fuel, because the heating process only 15 minutes, which when compared with traditional oil needs - + 5 hours of heating. As for the number of results in can not be compared with the traditional way, because it has not in practice where the results was 1.7 L.
From Farm Industry (Indonesia), Mr. Akbar Arsyad, Engineer of Agroindustrial Technology